عنوان مقاله [English]
Aisha, the wife of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), is known as one of the most important transmitters of Hadith in terms of quantity, due to her long life with the Holy Prophet (PBUH), her great influence among the companions, and the meeting of many of her followers. In addition to narration, she also played a role in understanding and criticizing Hadith; To the extent that she was considered one of the serious critics of narrations. Aisha, who introduced herself as one of the most knowledgeable in the tradition of the Prophet (PBUH), also dealt with the pathology of narrations. Some of these refinements are related to the identity and totality of the Hadiths, which are called external criticism in textual criticism. This descriptive study deals with her efforts in this field; The one that was later categorized in the science of Hadith with the term Ja'l wa Waḍ' (forgery), and was also included in the discussions of the ‘Ilal al-Hadith (problems of Hadiths). Criticisms can be expressed in this classification: confronting the entry of Arab superstitions, confronting the myths of neighboring regions, confronting false citations, correcting narrations about religious rulings, as well as opposing narrations that could weaken the position of women in society. The result of the article, in addition to showing the role of Aisha in the critique of Hadith and her verbal and practical confrontation with the narrations that some of the companions quoted inappropriately from her point of view, can show the first rules in the field of Hadith criticism.